Auto2x Automotive Consultancy

Regulatory framework for autonomous driving gets one step closer

The update on the amendment of UN Reg.79 is a first step towards self-steering systems for automated driving

Automated driving today: what is legal and what’s not

Partially-automated vehicles capable of both Level 2 driving and parking are already on the road today but concentrated in a handful of premium brands’ models. In detail, only 3 car manufacturers, all them premium ones, offer both L2 driving and parking (L2-D+P) features today. That is BMW, with L2-D+P introduced with its flagship 2017MY 7-Series, Mercedes-Benz with the 2017MY E-Class, and finally Tesla with the Model S and Model X respectively.

Audi, with its 2017MY Q7 and 2017MY A4, offers L2-Driving but only L1-Parking similar to Volvo’s 2017MY XC90 and the upcoming 2017MY S90.

Level 2 driving and parking is already here and Level 3 features will hit the market in mid-2017

The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and the Regulation No.79-steering equipment are the most relevant regulations regarding autonomous driving. L2 driving (e.g. LKA, TJA, etc.) and parking features (e.g. Tesla’s self-parking) are legal due to exemptions in steering Regulation No.79. The Vienna Convention, whose amendment came into effect on April 23, 2016 is not restrictive for many countries e.g. the UK is not a signatory.


Level 3 is not legal in Europe and going beyond partial automation (that is still permanently monitored by the driver) would require a new approach to legal framework in road traffic: Otherwise drivers would be breaching their legal obligations.

What is Reg.No 79 and what makes it so important for Automated Driving?

UN-ECE Regulation No.79 contains requirements for the steering configuration of M, N and O category vehicles and it is an obstacle to highly and fully automated driving (L3-onwards) because it currently limits automatic steering functions to driving conditions below 12km/h.

However, provisions of Reg.79 allow:

  • auto steering control (without the driver being in the steering loop) at low speeds (<12 km/h) which allow today’s park-assist systems or in other words hands-free parking
  • steering assistance (with the driver in the loop) only for a limited time, to maintain the basic desired course or to influence the vehicle’s dynamic behaviour. This provision is currently used by car manufacturers to allow approval of LKA, ACC and other L1 ADAS.

The Tesla fatality has changed the direction of the Reg.79 amendment

However, some OEMs have been using these provisions to get approval for L2 systems (equivalent to Traffic Jam Assist). Following the Tesla fatality, the counterparties were even considering prohibiting L2 automated steering at all but it has been decided that using this provision will not be possible once the first stage of the amendment comes into force.


The amendement process is in progress. In detail, 23rd Sep saw technical provisions for automated driving being adopted by experts (GRRF) as a first step towards the introduction of self-steering systems.

The group defined 5 categories of automation corresponding to the functionalities that the vehicle will be able to perform and adopted performance requirements for the first 2 levels of automation defined by SAE International.


The proposed amendment sub-divides ACSF into five
categories between A for functions that operate up to 10 km/h and E which can operate up to a maximum speed of 130 km/h. These relate to systems that, under specific driving circumstances, will take over the control of the vehicle under the permanent supervision of the driver, such as self-parking functions and Lane Keeping Assist Systems (e.g. when the car will take corrective measures if it detects that it is about to cross a lane accidentally).

They also entail removing the current limitation of automatic steering functions to driving conditions below 10km/h contained in UN Regulation No. 79.

Timeline of amendment  

The contracting parties are taking a 3 step approach:

  1. Stage-1 will see CSF and ACSF categories A and B1 coming into force by Jan’18
  2. Stage 2 (ESF, ACSF C) and 3 (ACSF B2, D, and E) by Oct’18

Once adopted by the World Forum at one of its forthcoming meetings (WP.29), these provisions will be integrated into UN vehicle Regulation No.79 and then in most European countries where Reg.79 is binding.

3 concerns arising from the regulatory amendment

The first problem arises from the fact that given the current timeline getting approval of SAE/BASt-Level 3 in Europe will probably not be possible before Jan’18 or Oct’18.

Second, the Reg.79 amendment will only allow approval of up to L3.

Third, being a Steering regulation, Reg.79 does not cover what the driver is allowed and not allowed to do in L3. Amendment of national traffic laws is required in this direction to allow driver distraction under specific scenarios.

To learn more about automated Driving Regulation, including OEMs’ roadmap to self-driving cars, read our report: Roadmap to Self-Driving cars: status, roadmap and strategy

To request a full Table of Contents contact us: (+44) (0)20 3286 4562, or visit

Auto2x Automotive Consultancy

New JV in Automotive Cyber Security: VW-CyMotive Technologies


Security is at the forefront of OEMs’ agenda as vulnerabilities and car hacks in Connected Cars are real and imminent. What is more, with Level 3 automation expected to hit the road next summer and V2V on the agenda, carmakers need expertise to protect the vehicles’ augmented attack vector.

In this direction, Volkswagen and Israeli start-up CyMotive Technologies formed a Joint Venture to develop automotive cyber security solutions that would protect Connected and Autonomous cars from malicious attacks. CYMOTIVE Technologies is a newly founded company based in Herzliya, Israel and led by Yuval Diskin, Tsafrir Kats and Dr Tamir Bechor.

The news come almost one month after two UK-based computer experts revealed that over 100 million cars sold by Volkswagen since 1995 are susceptible to hacking due to security flaws in keyless entry systems.


Volkswagen will own 40% stake while the Herzliya-based partners 60% and will be working exclusively with VW for the foreseeable future but with a view to target more OEMs at some point.

“It is a long-term investment in cyber security to make vehicles and their ecosystem more secure” Volkswagen’s Head of Electrical and Electronic Development Dr Volkmar Tanneberger commented.

Auto2x believes that this development confirms Israel’s status as a leading hub in Automotive Cyber Security as many Israeli start-ups are have been in the epicentre of investment, M&A and partnerships in this segment. In the beginning of the year, Argus Cyber Security announced a partnership with Check Point and earlier with Magna. In late 2015, TowerSec and RedBend were acquired by Harman. Finally, this summer, Karamba Security launched its CarWall software.

‘’The expansion of the vehicle’s attack surface means that many OEMs will have to rely more on automotive cyber security companies with expertise in this field, since most Tier-1s’ expertise is also limited. The outcome will be the formation of new partnerships, M&A and further investment in the Automotive Cyber Security market.’’

Georgios Stathousis, Auto2x

To find out who are the leading suppliers of software, hardware solutions and services in Connected Car Security and a competitive assessment of their portfolio read our report Automotive Cyber Security Market Forecast: the secure Connected Car.

Auto2x Automotive Consultancy

Suppliers’ latest activity to monetise growth in ADAS-AV

Investment, funding and product introduction in radar, vision, LiDAR, maps and software for ADAS-AV



Substantial investment, funding and product introduction from LiDAR suppliers

LiDAR is a key technology for autonomous driving, object recognition and accident prevention that major OEMs, such as Ford, and Tier1s, e.g. Delphi are relying on to achieve L3/4 automation. Tesla on the other hand is not.

Its cost, a significant barrier of commercialisation today, is expected to drop significantly from the $70-80,000 Velodyne LiDAR unit which featured on top of Google’s self-driving car. Given the massive potential for LiDAR demand in the future, several automotive suppliers are trying to develop a LIDAR portfolio.

Velodyne, Quanergy and LeddarTech are at the forefront of commercializing LiDAR technology beyond pilots to actual deployment.

In detail, in August Quanergy raised $90 Million from investors, including Delphi, achieving a post-funding valuation of $1.59 billion. Quanergy’s solid-state LiDAR, which would cost around $200-250 each when it hits the market in 2018, would bring the LiDAR cost per vehicle to less than $1,000, and constitutes an integral component into Delphi’s plan to deliver autonomous driving by 2019.

On the other hand, Velodyne announced the completion of a combined $150 million investment from Ford and Baidu to expand the design and production of its technology and enable mass adoption of AD. The company has a new version of its LiDAR sensor called Puck Hi-Res.


LeddarTech, which offers low price level Leddar for both ADAS and AV, introduced a new Leddar platform for autonomous driving sensor technology.

Finally, ZF acquired a 40% stake in the Hamburg-based company Ibeo Automotive Systems GmbH, a leader in lidar with several global OEMs as customers.


On the software side for AV, Delphi and Mobileye announced a partnership to develop Level 4/5 automation available for production by 2019. Delphi will incorporate Autonomous Driving software algorithms whereas Mobileye will focus on sensors and signal processing.


Denso agreed with Fujitsu and Toyota to increase its stake in Fujitsu Ten from 10% to 51% to push for better self-driving car sensors.

Fujitsu Ten Ltd., which builds the sort of radar systems used in autonomous driving systems, is Denso’s second deal this month in ADAS-AV following the signing of a technical advisory contract with computer vision and AI expert Carnegie Mellon University Professor Dr. Takeo Kanade.

The era of the mirrorless car is approaching

Camera Monitoring Systems can legally substitute outside rear-view mirrors in Japan from July 2016 as the country adopted the requirements of UN-ECE Regulation 46.04. This opens up new opportunities in the market as the technology has already been displayed in concept cars.

In the latest news, the Chinese Authorities are currently undertaking research to understand the recent amendment with a view to similarly amending the Chinese requirements (GB 15084).


Japan sets up a new Joint Venture to create high-definition 3-D maps for self-driving cars in September as part of a government effort to have such vehicles on the road by 2020, when the Tokyo Summer Olympics will be held.

Furthermore, Civil Maps, which in July received investment from Ford to accelerate deployment of 3D maps unveiled a passenger-facing augmented reality (AR) experience that integrates the company’s localization technology with 3D dynamic maps.

Suppliers invest in ADAS to achieve long-term profitability

All the above demonstrate significant activity from Automotive Suppliers and OEMs as they position themselves to monetise the era of full vehicle automation and new mobility.

One of the findings of our research on the world’s 8 leading ADAS suppliers was that, on average, their ADAS revenues accounted for approximately 2% of their total automotive revenue in 2015. However, what is now a small proportion of revenues, is expected to drive future profitability over the next decade as ADAS margins are expected to be high with the uptake of ADAS content per vehicle and the commercialisation of Autonomous Driving. As result we expect that many leading ADAS Suppliers will record billions of revenues from their ADAS segments.

Automotive suppliers continue to invest heavily to uniquely position themselves as leaders in autonomous driving and new mobility (car sharing, robot taxis). To learn more and get an understanding of ADAS suppliers’ rankings and market shares in 2015 and how they will develop over the next 5 years read our new report:

Rankings and market shares of Top Tier-1 ADAS Suppliers in 2015 & forecast 2016-2020

This report focuses on the leading manufacturers of the cameras, radars, Lidar and ultrasonic sensors used for ADAS since we have identified them as the ones to benefit more from the uptake of ADAS penetration and the eventual transition towards semi-autonomous and self-driving cars.