Automated Parking

SAIC, Great Wall and Changan lead Chinese Level 3 Autonomous Parking

  • BYD, Changan, Great Wall, Geely, and SAIC have already introduced Self-Parking capabilities that rival the likes of Audi, BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Tesla
  • Chinese Carmakers leverage their strategic partnerships with foreign OEMs and domestic tech pioneers to fast-track deployment of autonomous parking capabilities

BYD automated parking
BYD automated parking

1. SAIC’s Roewe Marvel X and Marvel equipped with Lv.3 “Full-scene Automated Valet Parking”

SAIC, Great Wall and Changan lead Chinese Level 3 Autonomous Parking 1

  • Feature name: “Full-Scene Automated Valet Parking”
  • ADAS Feature Classification: SAE Level 3 Parking-Learning Manoeuvre Parking Pilot
  • Sensor set: 6 HD cameras, a front-reversing radar, 3 millimetre-wave radars; and 12 ultrasonic sensors, AI technology
  • Parking Functionality: Self-Parking, Remote Control Parking, ability to learn the usual parking routes. The sensor suite enables the Marvel X to drive autonomously to the parking lot, search and identify parking spaces and accurately drive in or out of the space. Marvel X’s full-scene automatic parking can also be remotely controlled via a smartphone app.

Availability: Roewe’s BEV SUV Marvel X and its successor Marvel R are currently the only models under the Roewe brand that provide SAE Level 3- Self-learning parking capabilities.

Marvel X’s successor Marvel R also enables parking functions above L2 level. The pure electric SUV integrates Luminar’s Lidar technology to provide vision fusion fully automatic parking. Marvel R is also equipped with Huawei Balong 5000 5G chip that enables 5G/V2X communications, and Mobileye’s EyeQ4H core chip, among other intelligent driving systems.

The brand’s RX5 eMax and iMax 8 are equipped with SAE Level-2 APA automatic parking system.

Other ADAS features: Marvel X enables semi-autonomous driving capabilities of L2 by providing full-speed ACC (0 to 150 km/h), Lane Change Assist, Traffic Jam Assist, ICA highway assist and emergency braking, among other driving features.

2. Great Wall Motor’s ORA “Good Cat” with Lv.3 full-scene Automatic Parking

SAIC, Great Wall and Changan lead Chinese Level 3 Autonomous Parking 2

  • Feature name: “Full-scene Automatic Parking”
  • ADAS Feature Classification: SAE Level 3 Parking-Learning Manoeuvre Parking Pilot
  • Sensor set: High-sensitivity cameras, 2 high-precision millimeter-wave radars, 12 high-precision ultrasonic radars and GPS+Baidu’s high-precision positioning system. Finally, Intel’s intelligent Autopilot chip.
  • Parking Functionality: Self-Parking, ability to learn the usual parking routes. The ORA-Pilot parking system can identify objects such as vehicles, pedestrians, internal locks and no-stop signs in parking spaces, and automatically complete the parking procedure.

During the parking process, the vehicle can automatically complete the horizontal, vertical, oblique, slope and horizontal angle of less than 10% of the scene parking space. The system also provides AI point-to-point memory parking by integrating visual SLAM and ultrasonic radar to memorize and learn commonly used parking spaces and driving routes, and ultimately builds its own regional map.

Availability: GWM’s pure electric ORA Haomao, which means ‘Good Cat”.

3. Changan’s Auto Remote control Valet Parking system in UNI-T series

SAIC, Great Wall and Changan lead Chinese Level 3 Autonomous Parking 3

Feature name: “APA 5.0 Remote Control Valet Parking”

ADAS Feature Classification: SAE Level 3 Parking-Learning Manoeuvre Parking Pilot

Sensor set: APA 5.0 parking system integrates 4 HD wide-angle cameras and front/rear parking radars, ultrasonic radar data fusion.

Parking Functionality: Self-Parking, Remote Control Parking. The vehicle can perform horizontal parking, vertical and diagonal parking, find a parking space within 20m, enter the parking space and complete the entire parking process automatically. The car owner can also use the mobile phone APP to carry out one-key remote parking.

Availability: Changan’s UNI-T series.

Other ADAS: In addition, equipped with IACC integrated adaptive cruise system and Traffic Jam Assist, Changan’s SUV can realize L2+ automatic driving functions. UNI-T, the first model of the brand-new sequence “Gravity”, integrates “Journey II” car-level AI chip and AI vision developed by Horizon Robotics, in order to identify the scene-based needs of the drivers and provide corresponding services.

4. Geely’s Xingyue with FOTA and 5G Autonomous Valet Parking

SAIC, Great Wall and Changan lead Chinese Level 3 Autonomous Parking 4

The Xingyue has launched with L2 (APA) automated parking capabilities; the update enables more driverless driving functions such as one-touch 5G AVP that allow users to remotely control the vehicle parking procedure up to 1 km away from their cars! Geely’s new parking technology enables real-time V2X communications; between the driver, the internet-enabled car park, and the car cloud via 5G technology; so that the vehicle can automatically identify a parking space, park or pick up the car owners.

Geely’s SUV Xingye (or Preface) will upgrade its longevity through the use of FOTA to quickly complete updates (in under 30 minutes, with the ability to pre-determine download and update times, according to the company’s announcement); improving this way its vital driving functions such as the automated parking procedure.

Xingyue is equipped with G-Pilot 4, the highest level of Geely’s autonomous driving technical route; that offers intelligent parking capabilities, mobility services and L2+autonomous driving functions, such as intelligent travel pilot (ICC), full-speed ACC, TJA, LCA and in specific Geely models high-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB CUI high speed).

5. BYD’s DiLink3.0 intelligent driving assistant system

Automated Parking

  • Feature Name: “Vision Fusion Automatic Parking
  • Sensor set: Equipped with 4 wide-angle cameras and 1 intelligent high-sensitivity front camera, high-precision wave radars and up to 12 ultrasonic sensors

BYD launched DiLink3.0 in 2020, an intelligent driving assistant system that includes DiTrainer and DiDAS.

The DiLink3.0 system developed by BYD’s Intelligent Network Center, integrates DiTrainer and DiDas modules in order to optimize the existing L2 autonomous driving systems. DiTrainer is a big-data algorithm system that can automatically “observe” and “learn” driver’s behaviour, determine the driver’s type and, depending on the external driving environment, promptly remind the driver to turn on or to adjust the driving assistance functions provided by DiDAS module. DiDAS module includes AEB, ACC, TJA, PA and other driving functions.

Availbility: BYD’s flagship pure-eclectic sedan HAN was the first model equipped with DiLink3.0 system; currently 7 BYD’s models –Han series, Tang series and Song Plus DM-i – are equipped with DiLink3.0.

Han is currently the only model in BYD’s fleet that is capable of achieving parking functions above L2; approximately 67% of total BYD’s models are below L1 autonomous parking.


HAN can provide full-scenario automated parking with remote control capabilities. BYD plans to install the DiLink3.0 system in more of its existing models in order to close the existing gap in its parking technology deployment.

Read more

Read our report “30 Carmakers’ Roadmaps in Automated Driving up to 2025″, to learn more about the ADAS feature capabilities of major carmakers and their future roadmaps. For more information, please contact us on (+44) (0)20 3286 4562 or

How to Solve China’s electric car charging infrastructure bottleneck 5

How to Solve China’s electric car charging infrastructure bottleneck

  • The current number of electric car charging piles is relatively low compared to the government’s initial goal of 4 million stations in 2020
  • In the coming years, charging network availability may be of greater importance than the actual EV price
  • Heavy investment by public companies, energy providers and automakers aims to tackle the inefficient distribution of charging infrastructure in China
  • China’s tech giants seek to monetize the gains from the continuous NEVs deployment and the emerging Autonomous Driving technologies
Electric car charging
Tesla Electric car charging

China’s Electric Car charging infrastructure is struggling to keep up with the growing demand for NEVs


China’s Ministry of Public Security announced that as of 2020, the number of New Energy Vehicles in the country reached 4.92 million, accounting for 1.75% of the total number of vehicles (an increase of 1.11 million vehicles or 29.18% over 2019). Pure electric vehicles (BEV) accounted for 81.32% of the total number of NEVs. The organization has also pointed out that the increment of new energy vehicles exceeded 1 million for three consecutive years, a fact that is showing a trend of sustained high-speed growth.

At the same time, the number of electric car charging facilities reached 1.68 million in 2020, a 37.9% increase from 2019. This number includes 807,000 public charging poles and 874,000 private charging poles, according to the Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Promotion Alliance (EVCIPA).

According to the same source, the vehicle-to-charging point ratio across all the country is 3.5:1, while in the mega-cities like Beijing and Shanghai the ratio is substantially better, 1.5:1 and 1.2:1 respectively. Among public charging polls, fast-charging (FC) points count for 309,000, an approximately 12:1 ratio nationwide (i.e. one FC poll for every twelve EVs).

EV penetration is expected to grow up to 10%-12% of new vehicle sales, or greater, by 2023, according to China’s Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT). The “Energy-saving and New Energy Vehicle Technology Roadmap 2.0” released by SAE China in collaboration with MIIT, predicts that the NEVs share will reach 40% by 2030 and over 50% by 2035.

EVCIPA estimates that 50,000 public charging piles and 300,000 private piles will be deployed annually in the following years.

The investment cost of public charging piles will be ¥ 50,000 and the investment cost of private ones will be ¥25,000. EVCIPA estimates that the investment scale will reach ¥90 billion in 2025.


The Economics of Electric Car Charging Infrastructure

EV price-parity with conventional ICE cars is likely to take place between 2026 and 2029 in China, as large economies of scale in EV production and improvements in battery costs enhance automakers expectations and thus boost EV mass production. ICCT predicts that by 2030 battery pack costs will drop from the current ¥0.90/Wh to ¥0.4/Wh).

Nevertheless, an essential key for achieving cost parity with conventional ICE vehicles, especially regarding short-range BEVs (i.e range up to 250 km), would be the expansion of the current electric car charging infrastructure network.

Current charging piles deployment is relatively low compared to the government initial goal for approximately 4 million charging piles in 2020. This is mainly attributed to the high density of the Chinese cities and the lack of the spaces required for charging spots installation. In addition, the relatively insufficient vehicle-to-charging point ratio in China’s less populated regions (the public charging utilization ratio falls in some cases below 6%) implies an imbalanced distribution of charging piles triggered by insufficient charging infrastructure investment in these territories.

Substantial investment by the state and private players aim to tackle the “infrastructure bottleneck”

Electric vehicle charging infrastructure

Charging infrastructure development has been heavily supported by government investments, including energy companies and the state’s network of companies, together with national and local-level incentive programs and policies. As for the providers of public charging polls, StarCharge and Teld, among others, hold a substantial amount of the business, while energy ”giants” (like StateGrid and CSG) are also participating in the charging business.

In recent years, automakers have become major investors and account for a greater share of new installations. Among them, Tesla is growing rapidly its own charging network in China – according to recent posts Tesla has achieved to install 6,000 SuperChargers and provide this way its unique “Tesla ownership experience” in over 300 cities across mainland China’s region.

“StateGrid announced a ¥ 2.7 billion ($380 million) investment in 2020 to set up 78,000 charging piles across the country, while China Southern Power Grid (CSG) announced plans to invest more than ¥ 25 billion (about $3.48 billion) for the completion of 150 large-scale centralized charging stations and 380,000 charging piles, in the four following years.”


BP’s Strategy

BP’s strategy in the EV charging business indicates that the energy giant demonstrates the importance of building a strong position as an electric car charging provider as mobility becomes more electrified and shared. 

  • BP acquired Chargemaster in the UK in 2018
  • Recently they acquired a 33.3% share of the Daimler-BMW joint venture ChargeNow in Europe.
  • BP invested in NIO Capital in 2018 to fund NEV ecosystem new ventures,
  • BP also invested in PowerShare, a company that provides a connection to multiple charging point operators.
  • In 2019, Didi Chuxing (“DiDi”) and BP, announced that they have agreed to form a new joint venture to build electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure in China.

Beyond “pure charging installation” the management of wide charging networks is crucial for charging infrastructure deployment

In general, vast amounts of data obtained by EV users through the cloud and digital platforms can provide information about customer preferences similar to the information obtained by smartphone usage that led to the previous decade “e-commerce boom”.

In the charging-business field, analyzing EV-user’s behaviour is not only important for the charging infrastructure providers and the EV manufacturers but is also crucial for the power grid management and the efforts related to energy grid load demand optimization. In this direction, several players in the business prioritize the development of cloud-based platforms in order to provide a connection between charging points and enhance their users experience in charging delivery.

CSG’s platform “Shunyi Charging” has more than 500,000 registered active users per day, while State Grid’s number of registered users exceeds 3 million and covers more than 85% of the public charging piles nationwide“. 

Monetize gains from smart technologies deployment in EV growing numbers lures tech-giants

An increasing number of tech giants and car-makers are racing to develop smart electric vehicles in China’s booming NEV market. Huawei collaborates with various Chinese automakers including BAIC and BYD, while Alibaba – an early investor in electric vehicle manufacturer Xpeng – has formed an EV joint venture with SAIC. Another Chinese automaker Geely has recently partnered with tech-giant Baidu in order to develop intelligent EVs, while Didi Chuxing – the major Chinese ride-hailing player – has partnered with automaker BYD in the development of all-electric D1 vehicles.

In March, Xiaomi announced plans to invest $10 billion in the following years in order to develop its own smart-electric vehicle, while another smartphone manufacturer, Oppo, plans to venture into the automotive sector according to recent media reports.

Tech-giants experience in software and hardware integration is able to give them a “built-in” advantage in applying smart technologies in new electric vehicles. Besides valuable gains from the vast amounts of generated data, EV’s mass deployment could be tech-giants’s first step in order to leverage their smart-tech knowledge in the next generation autonomous vehicles.

Read more

To learn about Carmakers’ strategies, market positioning and leadership in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure, as well as electrification of MaaS read our report “Carmakers’ Competitiveness in Smart Mobility“.


The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 6
Top Technology Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021

Technology Partnerships in Autonomous Driving for Lidar-based Level 3, Software-defined cars

Jaguar Land Rover’s concept of Autonomous Driving

1. SAIC-Luminar Tech partnership for Lidar (March 2021)

SAIC partners with Luminar Tech for Lidar integration

Technology Domain: Lidar & Software integration

What: Luminar collaborates with SAIC in order to integrate its Lidar sensors and Sentinel software technology into SAIC’s new electric vehicle line “R brand” vehicles launching in 2021.

Why it matters: This is an indication that SAIC is planning Level 3+ (for highways) or Level 4 Autonomous Driving to compete with other Chinese brands such as Changan, Tesla and newcomers such as NIO and Xpeng. Today, SAIC’s brand MG is equipped with Level 2-Traffic Jam Assist under the MG Pilot. The addition of Lidar can complement radar and camera sensors to provide a more robust perception of the vehicle’s environment required for Level 3 and Level 4- Highly automated driving.

Luminar has already built a strong supply chain base with leading carmakers to install its lidars. Luminar has partnerships with Volvo to provide lidar for the SPA-2 based cars coming in 2022 with Level 4-Highway Pilot. The company teamed up with the ex-Audi AID, now Argo AI in Dec’18 for forward-looking Lidar.

What to expect next: Chinese brands are leveraging partnerships to deploy Level 3 and Level 4 Autonomous Driving in China. Auto2x expects vehicles equipped with Level 3-Driving features in China to account for 6% of new car sales in China in 2025 or 2.3 million cars. SAIC will follow BAIC, Changan and Chery among Chinese carmakers to offer Level 3+ Automated Driving by 2025 which allows drivers to take their eyes off the road on specific highways and perform side tasks where the system controls driving function. But they must always be available to take over vehicle control- since they are (by definition) the ultimate backup.

2. Denso collaborates with lidar-developer Aeva (January 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 7

Technology Domain: Commercialization of FMCW Lidar Technology

What: Denso partners with Aeva to advance Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) lidar to the mass vehicle market. Denso claims that FMCW lidar is capable of performing with higher accuracy and speed in comparison to mass-deployed Time of Flight (TOF) lidar, as it detects not only the direction and distance of surrounding objects (pedestrians, bicycles etc.) but also their moving speed.

Why it matters: Denso together with its main Tier-1 competitors Bosch and Continental have been highly active recently in LiDAR development to offer a complete perception set to carmakers. In October 2020, Continental invested in AEye to expand its automated driving sensor portfolio with AEye’s 4Sight long-range lidar. Also in 2020, Bosch announced they are working on LiDAR that will cover both long and close ranges for highway and city driving scenarios respectively.

What to expect next: Aeva followed a number of LiDAR startups to IPOs (AEye, Luminar, Ouster and Innoviz. and Velodyne) and was recently listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol, “AEVA”.

Aeva is engaged with 30 of the top OEM and automotive industry players in the advanced driver assistance and autonomous driving industries, has received strategic investments from Porsche SE, the majority shareholder of VW Group, and has relationships with some of the largest Tier 1 automotive suppliers.


3. Toyota’s Woven Planet partners with Apex.AI (April 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 8

Technology Domain: Autonomous Driving Platform and Software

What: The collaboration with Apex.AI enables software development in Toyota’s development platform Arene. Apex.OS -a software development kit (SDK)-  will integrate into Arene’s software stack to shorten the R&D of autonomous software development and ultimately bring it to production vehicles

Why it matters: Toyota does not own the architecture of the software existing within its vehicles which are “hardware-defined”, i.e. they have dozens of components that are not integrated with each other. The partnership aims to close the gap with competitors whose cars are “software-defined” like Tesla that have been doing software development for their cars for quite some time as software integration to AVs can allow scalability, provide product differentiation and improve customer experience.

What to expect next: The transition from hardware-defined vehicles to software-defined vehicles is crucial for automakers. “Software is now a prime value driver in the product development portfolio of automakers”, according to a recent McKinsey report.

4. Daimler’s Torc Robotics selects Amazon as its cloud provider for self-driving trucks (February 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 9

Domain: Cloud-Mobility

What: Torc Robotics, which develops self-driving vehicle software, is now focusing on the commercialization of its Level 4 self-driving system in trucks. Torc will leverage Amazon’s cloud system to handle the generated data with greater efficiency.

Why it matters: Cloud-based development of ADAS promises scalability, efficiency, security, and staying always up to date to guarantee that today’s systems will mitigate future accidents in the ever-changing road environment. Learn more about the benefits of cloud-based Autonomous Driving here.

“We believe this relationship between Torc and AWS brings together two very strong teams and is another milestone on our road to Level 4 trucks”

Dr. Peter Vaughan Schmidt, Head of Daimler Trucks’ Autonomous Technology Group

Partnerships in Electrification & Sustainability

5. Daimler Trucks & Volvo Group launch Hydrogen Truck Joint Venture “CellCentric” (April 2021)

Fuel cell system

Technology Domain: Fuel Cell development for heavy-duty trucks and other applications

What: Daimler and Volvo Group partnered in a new fuel cell joint venture in order to commercialize fuel cell technology. The operation will begin in 2025. The JV aims at achieving the carbon-neutral goals of both Truck makers by combining the expertise of two strong players in the Trucking industry.

Why it matters: Hydrogen Fuel Cell technology for heavy, long-haul trucks benefits from longer range and faster refuelling compared to Battery Electric Trucks. Both Daimler and Volvo follow a dual parallel strategy in Truck electrification to decarbonize their fleet. On the one hand, they are working on Battery Electric Trucks for short-distance, low-weight applications (e.g. Mercedes-Benz eActros) on the other hand developing Hydrogen Trucks for heavy-duty, long-haul applications. The two technologies can complement each other depending on the use case.

Partnerships like cellcentric are vital to our commitment to decarbonizing road transport.

Martin Lundstedt, CEO of Volvo Group

What comes next: A number of technological and commercial barriers restrict the adoption of Hydrogen in Trucks today but the industry is working on tackling them. The production cost of Green Hydrogen (from renewable resources), the cost of vehicles, the storage and distribution (refuelling infrastructure) are among the key challenges for the commercialization of the technology. Daimler and Volvo call for a “harmonized EU hydrogen policy framework to support the technology in becoming a viable commercial solution”.

6. Baidu collaborates with Geely for smart EVs by 2024 (January 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 10

Technology Domain: Smart Electric Vehicles (EVs)

What: Geely partnered with Baidu in order to develop intelligent EVs. The $7.7 billion Joint Venture called “Jidu Auto” aims to deliver its first smart full electric vehicle by 2024.

Why it matters: Baidu is looking to monetize its expertise in intelligent driving technologies within its Apollo division, which has been operating since 2013, by tapping into the booming electric vehicle market (NEV) and shared mobility in China. The new JV with Geely is another way to respond to recent competition. Alibaba – the Chinese e-commerce giant – has formed an EV joint venture with SAIC. Also Didi Chuxing – the Chinese ride-hailing provider backed by SoftBank- has partnered with automaker BYD in D1 development – an electric vehicle specifically designed for ride hailing services.

7. Mercedes−Benz & Siemens partner for digital and sustainable automotive production (March 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 11

Technology domain: Industry 4.0: digitalization and automation of automotive production under sustainable goals

What: The partnership aims to develop innovative solutions for the qualification of employees, digitalization and for increasing energy efficiency in production for the development of sustainable future technologies.

In the future, e-mobility components will also be assembled in Berlin. The company wants to secure the future for the Berlin plant, which is the oldest site in the Mercedes-Benz global powertrain production network.


Partnerships in Shared Mobility and Robotaxis

8. Mobileye partners with Silicon Valley startup Udelv (April 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 12

Technology Domain: Autonomous Delivery

What: Mobileye teams with Udelv to launch 35,000 full electric driverless delivery vehicles by 2028. According to a recent announcement, Molileye’s self-driving system branded the “Mobileye Drive”, will “drive” Udelv’s next-generation autonomous delivery vehicles. Udelv is among the self-driving technology companies that are currently focusing on the delivery of goods, following the pandemic-driven boom in e-commerce and touchless delivery.

9. Toyota, Aurora And Denso Partner to Develop Robotaxis (February 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 13

Technology Domain: Robotaxis / Autonomous-Mobility-On-Demand (AMOD)

What: Toyota’s Sienna minivans will be fitted with Aurora’s self-driving hardware and software stack to be turned into robotaxis to be tested by the end of 2021. Aurora will explore mass production of self-driving components with Denso and with Toyota the development of mobility and financial services.

Why it matters: For Toyota-backed Aurora, it is an important step to compete with Waymo, Cruise (backed by GM), Argo AI (backed by Ford-VW). It comes a few months after the acquisition of Uber’s ATG automated driving unit. Toyota remains an investor in Uber and transferred its equity stake from ATG to Aurora under the deal.

10. Microsoft’s Azure cloud platform will power GM Cruise’s robotaxis (January 2021)

The 10 most important Partnerships In Autonomous, Electric & Shared Mobility In 2021 14

Technology Domain: Automotive Cloud for Robotaxis

What: Cruise will use Azure, Microsoft’s cloud and edge computing platform, to scale its autonomous vehicles while Microsoft will invest $2bn in Cruise joining GM and Honda. GM will work with Microsoft as its preferred public cloud provider. 

Read more

To learn more about competition and market developments in the next decade read our reports

For more information, please contact us on (+44) (0)20 3286 4562 or


Barriers in EV Charging Infrastructure to Turn California Green

  • The Golden State faces barriers in electric vehicle charging infrastructure which might delay its goal of 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles on state roads by 2025
  • California leads the “race between the states” in public investments in EV charging infrastructure but private players have to explore new streams of earnings
  • California aims to set a Fast Charging (DC) inlet Standard in order to address the rising complexity

California’s plan to scale EV Charging Infrastructure to meet the 2025 ZEV goal

Electric vehicle charging infrastructure

California’s EV charging infrastructure represents more than one-third of the U.S. market

As of April 2021, public and private charging stations amounted to 52,680 across the entire country, of which 14,388 stations were in California, according to the US Department of Energy. California is home to 34 EV-related companies with an estimated market capitalization of more than $500 billion, according to the California Energy Commission (CEC).

In 2020, ZEVs sales in California were slightly down but penetration in Light Vehicle sales rose to 8%

CEC’s data reveals that zero-emission vehicles (ZEV) sales in 2019 nearly reached 148,000 vehicles – a 6.84% penetration in total vehicle sales – while sales in 2020 were nearly 146,000 vehicles -penetration raised to almost 8%.

Tesla sold nearly 84,000 vehicles in California as of 2020, while Chevrolet and Toyota followed with smaller sales proportions.

Following California’s ZEV action plan, authorities plan to put 1.5 million ZEVs on state roads by 2025 and at least 5 million zero-emission vehicles by 2030. Regarding ZEV’s adoption through 2030, California’s Air Resources Board (CARB) 2030 Strategy Scenario and CEC’s 2020 energy demand forecast, indicated that over 2.2 million zero-emission vehicles are expected to hit California roads by 2025.

As ZEV prices decline, shared public charging infrastructure will be increasingly critical for the wider adoption of Electric cars

Back in 2019, a study conducted by the Harris Poll on behalf of Volvo Cars, indicated that public charging availability is crucial for EV’s development – in the years to come the growth in the EV market will increasingly depend on driver confidence in charging infrastructure. According to the study, while almost 50% of the ZEV’s drivers choose to charge their vehicles at the public stations, more than one-third of them (36%) found the experience of using public charging stations as time-consuming.

The gap in charging infrastructure may obstruct the State’s progress toward 2030 ZEV goal 

According to California Public Utilities Commission, the state is currently on the road to achieving the goal of 1.5 million ZEVs on state roads by 2025 but is behind in providing the charging infrastructure needed to support the growing EV population.

As of late 2020, California had nearly 67,000 public and shared chargers installed, including over 5,000 direct fast chargers. Projected installations of public and private Level 2 and DC Fast Chargers are expected to reach nearly 189,000 by 2025 according to the California Energy Commission, leaving a gap of almost 61,000 chargers in order to meet the 2025 charger goal.

Barriers in EV Charging Infrastructure to Turn California Green 15

Financing the expansion of EV charging infrastructure in California

Biden’s call for massive investment and the current (public and private) investment status in California

President Biden’s $2 trillion infrastructure plan includes a $174 billion investment in order to promote EV deployment and install 500,000 charging stations across the U.S. by 2030. Concerning the current status of investment, California State is leading the state race of charging infrastructure deployment.

The California Energy Commission’s Clean Transportation Program has invested almost $200 million in public and private charging infrastructure over the past 10 years, while CALeVIP continues to fund incentives for EV charger installations.  Additionally, in Jul.2020, the California Public Utilities Commission approved a $436 million program that will deploy approximately 40,000 charging stations for electric vehicles in Southern California.

The need for new revenue streams: 2 paradigms, Smart charging and bi-directional charging are two paradigms

Beyond the traditional revenue model (i.e. mark up the retail price of electricity for charging purposes), charging infrastructure development requires new business models that can potentially expand the revenue streams and diversify charging-business for the EVSE suppliers.

Smart Charging uses a cloud-based energy management system that is capable of optimizing the existing charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. ChargeForward, a “smart-charging” pilot program launched by BMW and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), offers to all BMW EV drivers in Northern and Central California incentives for maximizing the integration of renewable energy when they charge their cars during recommended hours. Drivers are able to use BMW ConnectedDrive and ChargeForward apps, in order to fulfill their smart charging requests.

Bi-directional charging allows cars to store and discharge power from their battery packs, usually in the context of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems that integrate EVs with the power grid. The all-electric Ford F-150 will provide bidirectional charging capabilities, while the Lucid Air developed by Lucid Motors offers full bi-directional charging for Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X), Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) features.

Barriers in EV Charging Infrastructure to Turn California Green 16
VW Bi-directional EV Charging

Standardization of Fast Charging (DC) inlets by 2026 become crucial

As more and more carmakers contemplate intelligent charging solutions, standardization of charging inlets will be a key prerequisite for the development of charging infrastructure. The lack of standardization among charging inlets -and particularly FC inlets- increases rapidly the barriers to establishing a functional charging network. The current split of DC chargers among three designs -CCS, CHAdeMO, and Tesla- causes complexity issues in terms of drivers uncertainty (i.e. finding a compatible connector) and the EVSE suppliers ‘ infrastructure plans.

California’s Air Resources Board (CARB) has recently announced that by 2026, all light-duty EV vehicles with fast-charging capability in California should be compatible with the CCS connector.


In its 2020 analysis, CARB foresees that by the end of 2022,  51 of the 59 BEVs in California will use the CCS inlet. In this context, Nissan has recently announced that it would be equipping the new Ariya electric crossover with a CCS connector, rather than the CHAdeMO inlet.

Read more

To learn about Carmakers’ strategies, market positioning and leadership in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure, as well as electrification of MaaS read our report “Carmakers’ Competitiveness in Smart Mobility“.

For more information on this report, including sample pages and a full Table of Contents, please contact us on (+44) (0)20 3286 4562.